Archive for Kontrollmechanismus

INDECT – Wirre Vision oder Krude Realität ››blog.boxedpages.net

Der Kampf um die ACTA-Ratifizierung ist noch in vollem Gange – es sieht nicht allzu gut aus. Und man hört schon die nächsten Paukenschläge. IPRED ist z.B. der Vorstoß der Europäischen Kommission, so ziemlich alle Punkte die zur Zeit an dem ACTA Abkommen kritisiert werden, in teils noch verschärfterer Form in einem anderen Vertrag festzulegen. Der Startschuss für IPRED fiel schon im Jahr 2004, heise berichtete darüber. Der Aufschrei war allerdings nicht annähernd so laut wie bei der ACTA Diskussion. In einem späteren Artikel werde ich mich näher mit IPRED beschäftigen.

Aber wer jetzt denkt das wars mit dem Eisberg, den muss ich enttäuschen. Im Jahr 2009 hat die EU ein neues Vorhaben ins Leben gerufen, die INDECT – “INtelligent information system supporting observation, searching and DEteCTion for security of citizens in urban environment” (“Intelligentes Informationssystem, das Überwachung, Suche und Entdeckung für die Sicherheit von Bürgern in einer städtischen Umgebung unterstützt”) … Wen der Name noch nicht abschrecken sollte, für den habe ich die Gruselmeldung schlechthin. Und ich bitte nun jeden Leser mit einem schwachen Gemüt unsere Seite zu schließen und sich wieder den schönen Dingen des Lebens zu widmen. Denn was jetzt kommt ist nichts geringeres als blanker Horror für jeden Datenschützer, Demokraten und aufrechten Bürger.

Begonnen hat das ganze wie gesagt schon Anfang 2009 im Zuge des 7. Forschungsrahmenprogramms aus Brüssel. Die Studie soll 5 Jahre andauern und bis zum 31.12.2012 abgeschlossen sein. Die Gesamtkosten des Projekts sollen sich auf 14,8 Millionen Euro belaufen, davon übernimmt die EU 10,906,984 Euro. Von den 17 Institutionen aus 10 Ländern kommen 3 aus Deutschland. Die Innotec Data GmbH, die PSI AG und die Bergische Universität Wuppertal. Das deutsche BKA hat sich einer Teilnahme vorbildhaft enthalten, in einer Pressemeldung lässt es verlauten „aufgrund des umfassenden Überwachungsgedankens des Projektes“ nicht zu partizipieren! Es hat 2009 ein eigenes Projekt “Foto-Fahndung” vorgestellt, welches jedoch 2007 mit überwiegend negativen Ergebnissen eingestellt wurde. Dies war der einzige Beitrag des BKA an dem INDECT Projekt.

An diesem Punkt haben wir die Fakten geklärt, jetzt zum Inhalt, die Webseite Stoppt-Indect hat eine Darstellung die ich selbst nicht hätte besser formulieren können:

INDECT verbindet sämtliche Daten aus Foren, Social Networks (z.B. Facebook), Suchmaschinen des Internets mit staatlichen Datenbanken, Kommunikationsdaten und Kamerabeobachtungen auf der Straße. INDECT wird wissen, wo wir sind, was wir tun, weshalb wir es tun und was unsere nächsten Schritte sein werden. INDECT wird unsere Freunde kennen und wissen, wo wir arbeiten. INDECT wird beurteilen, ob wir uns normal oder abnormal verhalten.

Klingt wie Science-Fiction ist aber harte Wahrheit. Selbst der Wikipedia-Artikel darüber schreibt: “Mittels „Predictive Analytics“ und „Relationship mining“ sollen Risiken analysiert und Straftaten vorhergesehen werden”. Klingt stark nach dem Hollywood Film Minority Report. Damit ist es amtlich, die bis heute geltende Unschuldsvermutung wird in kürze ein Ding der Vergangenheit sein.

Erklärte Ziele des Projektes sind unter anderem die vollständige Nutzbarmachung aller vorhandenen Daten, On- und Offline, um ein Profil über Menschen zu erstellen, welches Straftaten und andere Delikte präventiv aufklären soll. Hierzu sollen alle Aktivitäten von ihnen in Chats, News-Seiten, P2P Netzwerken und selbst dem Usenet automatisch gesammelt und bewertet werden – von einer Software. Ein Dokument (work package 4), welches im Oktober 2009 auf Wikileaks erschien und als “Geheim” gekennzeichnet ist, beschreibt wie die Computerlinguistik dahingehend entwickelt werden soll, das “die Suchroutinen in der Lage sind, Beziehungen zwischen Personen sowie den Kontext einer Unterhaltung bei der Interpretation der Sprache mit einzubeziehen”.

Weiterhin sollen Polizeiliche Einrichtungen die Möglichkeit bekommen, Menschen auf der Strasse zu überwachen. Hierzu sollen UAVs (Unmanned Air Vehicle), kleine fliegende Geräte die mit Kameras versehen sind, in der mobilen städtischen Observation von Bürgern (Mobile Urban Observation System) eingesetzt werden. Diese sollen maximal vernetzt, autonom auffällige Personen verfolgen und die Daten an die nächstgelegene zuständige Einrichtung schicken. Um verdächtiges Verhalten zu definieren wurden Fragebögen an Polizisten verteilt, unter anderem mit Fragen wie:

- Wie sehen Taschendiebe/Dealer/Drogenabhängige/verlorene Kinder/Hooligans/Terroristen aus, welche Kleidung tragen sie?

- Woran erkennt man Autodiebstähle, Vandalismus, Bedrohung mit Waffengewalt etc.

- Woran erkennt man Personen, die Hilfe benötigen?

- Welche Bewegungsarten zeichnen gefährliche Situationen in Massenveranstaltungen aus?

In einer Umfrage mit polnischen Polizisten wird auffälliges Verhalten dann etwas konkreter. Wer auf der Straße rennt, kämpft, zu schnell fährt; wer im öffentlichen Nahverkehr auf dem Fußboden sitzt, zu lange sitzt, Gepäck vergisst; wer im Stadion Flaschen wirft, das Spielfeld betritt; wer am Flughafen Gepäck vergisst oder zu lange sitzt wird erfasst.

In die automatisierte Überwachung sollen des weiteren Bewegung in die “falsche” Richtung, “Herumlungern”, Treffen von mehr als X Personen, Autodiebstahl, Laufen, fallende Personen, Gepäck vergessen, Herumsitzen, länger als die Dauer X, Schreien, Schüsse, Explosionen und fluchende Personen einfließen. Aus diesen Daten wird dann ein personenbezogenes Profil erstellt und in eine Gefahrenkategorie eingestuft. Im schlimmsten Fall für immer.

Auch die bisher installierten öffentlichen Überwachungskameras an größeren Plätzen, in U-Bahn Stationen und Bahnhöfen kommen nicht zu kurz. So soll Software entwickelt werden, die anhand von biometrischen Daten aus Ausweisen und Führerscheinen Bewegungsprofile erstellt und Personen vollautomatisiert verfolgt. Diese Daten sollen dann gemeinsam mit anderen, wie Telekommunikationsdaten (Vorratsdatenspeicherung) und Mobilfunkdaten (Stille SMS / GPS), in einer großen Datenbank zusammengeführt werden. George Orwell, 1984 lässt grüßen. Wem dabei Skynet oder ähnliches in den Sinn kommt, der ist nicht verrückt, kein Verschwörer oder ähnliches, das wird unter Umständen bald sehr real.

Bei der diesjährigen Fussball Europameisterschaft in Polen soll das System erstmals zum Einsatz kommen. Es werden Feldversuche über die Registrierung von abnormalem Verhalten bei den Zuschauern und Anwohnern, sowie eine automatisierte Analyse von Sprechchören durchgeführt. Im September 2010 wurden die Geheimhaltungsvorschriften für INDECT noch einmal scharf heraufgestuft, es wurde ein “Ethikrat” gegründet, der fortan die Veröffentlichungen zu Fortschritten und Ergebnissen kontrolliert.

Nachfolgend noch ein paar Links zu Kritikern und Meinungen.

www.taz.de
www.zeit.de
www.wdr.de
www.asta.uni-wuppertal.de
www.telegraph.co.uk
www.euractiv.de
www.alexander-alvaro.de
www.stopp-indect.info

via INDECT – Wirre Vision oder Krude Realität.

ACTA: The Corporate Usurpation of the Internet ››Yup ! Zone

/ On : 12:28 AM/ Thank you for visiting my small blog here. If you wanted to discuss or have the question around this article, please comment here.
In the wake of a public outcry against internet regulation bills such as SOPA and PIPA, representatives of the EU have signed a new and far more threatening legislation yesterday in Tokyo. Spearheaded by the governments of the United States and Japan and constructed largely in the absence of public awareness, the measures of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) dramatically alter currentinternational legal framework, while introducing the first substantial processes of global internet governance. With complete contempt towards the democratic process, the negotiations of the treaty were exclusively held between industry representatives and government officials, while excluding elected representatives and members of the press from their hearings.
Under the guise of protecting intellectual property rights, the treaty introduces measures that would allow the private sector to enforce sweeping central authority over internet content. The ACTA abolishes all legal oversight involving the removal of content and allows copyright holders to force ISPs to remove material from the internet, something that presently requires a court order. ISPs would then be faced with legal liabilities if they chose not to remove content. Theoretically, personal blogs can be removed for using company logos without permission or simply linking to copy written material; users could be criminalized, barred from accessing the internet and even imprisoned for sharing copyrighted material. Ultimately, these implications would be starkly detrimental toward the internet as a medium for free speech.
The Obama Administration subverted the legal necessity of allowing to US Senate to ratify the treaty by unconstitutionally declaring it an “executive agreement” before the President promptly signed it on October 1st, 2011. As a touted constitutional lawyer, Barack Obama is fully aware that Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution, mandates Congress in dealing with issues of intellectual property, thus voiding the capacity for the President to issue an executive agreement. The White House refused to even disclose details about the legislation to elected officials and civil libertarians over concern that doing so may incur “damage to the national security.” While some may hang off every word of his sorely insincere speeches and still be fixated by the promises of hope offered by brand-Obama, his administration has trampled the constitution and introduced the most comprehensive authoritarian legislation in America’s history. 
In addition to imposing loosely defined criminal sanctions to average web users, the ACTA treaty will also obligate ISPs to disclose personal user information to copyright holders. The measures introduce legislative processes that contradict the legal framework of participant countries and allows immigration authorities to search laptops, external hard drives and Internet-capable devices at airports and border checkpoints. The treaty is not limited solely to internet-related matters, ACTA would prohibit the production of generic pharmaceuticals and outlaw the use of certain seeds for crops through patents, furthering the corporate cartelization of the food and drug supply.

ACTA would allow companies from any participating country (which include EU member states, the United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Morocco) to shut down websites without any explanation. Hypothetically, nothing could prevent private Singaporean companies from promptly taking down American websites that oppose the Singapore Air Force conducting war games on US soil, such as those conducted in December 2011. By operating outside normal judicial framework, exporting US copyright law to the rest of the world and mandating private corporations to conduct surveillance on their users, all prerequisites of democracy, transparency and self-expression are an afterthought.  
The further monopolization of the existing resources of communication, exchange and expression is ever present in the form of deceptive new articles of legislation that unanimously call for the implementation of the same austere censorship measures. Even if the ACTA treaty is not implemented, the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TTP) between Australia, Brunei, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Vietnam and the United States offers more extensive intellectual property regulations. Leaked documents prepared by the U.S. 

Business Coalition (which have been reportedly drafted by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufactures of America, the US Chamber of Commerce, and the Motion Picture Association of America) report that in addition to ACTA-style legislation, the TTP will impose fines on non-compliant entities and work to extend the general period of copy write terms on individual products

Under the sweeping regulations of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, individual infringers will be criminalized and sentenced with the same severity as large-scale offenders. Within the United States, the recently announced Online Protection and Enforcement of Digital Trade (OPEN) H.R. 3782 regulation seeks to install policies largely identical to SOPA and PIPA. The Obama administration is also working towards an Internet ID program, which may be mandatory for American citizens and required when renewing passports, obtaining federal licenses, or applying for social security. Spreading these dangerous measures to other countries participating in these treaties would necessitate a binding obligation on the US to retain these policies, averting any chance of reform.
The ACTA will become law once it is formally ratified and cleared by the European Parliament in June. By petitioning members of the European parliament and educating others about the potential dangers imposed by this legislation, there is a chance of the treaty being rejected. Upon closer examination of the human condition with all of its inequalities, food insecurity and dire social issues, our governments have lost their legitimacy for giving such unwarranted priority to fighting copyright infringement on behalf of lobbyists from the pharmaceutical and entertainment industries. The existence of ACTA is a clear statement that surveillance, regulations and securing further corporate centralization dwarfs any constructive shift towards stimulating human innovation and self-sufficient technologies.  
When former US National Security Advisor and Trilateral Commission co-founder, Zbigniew Brzezinski spoke before the Council on Foreign Relations in 2010, he warned of a global political awakening beginning to take place. Technology such as file sharing, blogging, and open source software has the potential to undermine the oligarchical governing interests seeking to centrally control our society and enforce the population into being entirely dependent on their commodities. The following excerpt from Brzezinski’s book Between Two Ages: America’s Role in the Technetronic Era, provides invaluable insight into the world being brought in; “The technetronic era involves the gradual appearance of a more controlled society. Such a society would be dominated by an elite, unrestrained by traditional values. Soon it will be possible to assert almost continuous surveillance over every citizen and maintain up-to-date complete files containing even the most personal information about the citizen. These files will be subject to instantaneous retrieval by the authorities.”

via ACTA: The Corporate Usurpation of the Internet.

EU economic governance ››European Commission

The EU and its Member States have taken a series of important decisions that will strengthen economic and budgetary coordination for the EU as a whole and for the euro area in particular. As a result, the EU’s interdependent economies will be better placed to chart a path to growth and job creation.

Surveillance of economic and fiscal policies

The economic and financial crisis has revealed a number of weaknesses in the economic governance of the EU’s economic and monetary union. The cornerstone of the EU response is the new set of rules on enhanced EU economic governance which entered into force on 13 December 2011. It has four main components:

  • Stronger preventive action through a reinforced Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) and deeper fiscal coordination: Member States are required to make significant progress towards medium-term budgetary objectives (MTO) for their budgetary balances. Expenditure benchmarks will now be used alongside the structural budget balance to assess adjustments towards the MTO. An interest-bearing deposit of 0.2% of GDP will be imposed on non-compliant euro-area countries.
  • Stronger corrective action through a reinforced SGP: The launch of an Excessive Deficit Procedure (EDP) can now result from government debt developments as well as from government deficit. Member States with debt in excess of 60% of GDP should reduce their debt in line with a numerical benchmark. Progressive financial sanctions kick in at an earlier stage of the EDP. It is a non-interest interest bearing only deposit of 0.2% of GDP may be requested from a euro-area country which is placed in EDP on the basis of its deficit or its debt. Failure of a euro-area country to comply with recommendations for corrective action will result in a fine.
  • Minimum requirements for national budgetary frameworks: Member States should ensure that their fiscal frameworks are in line with minimum quality standards and cover all administrative levels. National fiscal planning should adopt a multi-annual perspective, so as to attain the MTO. Numerical fiscal rules should also promote compliance with the Treaty reference values for deficit and debt.
  • Preventing and correcting macroeconomic and competitiveness imbalances: Over the past decade, Member States have made economic choices which have lead to competitiveness divergences and macroeconomic imbalances within the EU. A new surveillance mechanism will aim to prevent and correct such divergences. It will rely on an alert system that uses a scoreboard of indicators and in-depth country studies, strict rules in the form of a new Excessive Imbalance Procedure (EIP) and better enforcement in the form of financial sanctions for Member States which do not follow up on recommendations.

Enforcement is strengthened by the expanded use of ‘reverse qualified majority’ voting. Under this voting system, a Commission recommendation or proposal to the Council is considered adopted unless a qualified majority of Member States vote against it.

Legislation

Regulations

Directives

Commission proposals on stronger budgetary surveillance in the euro area

In addition to the new rules on economic governance, the Commission on 23 November 2011 proposed two draft Regulations to enhance the coordination and surveillance of budgetary processes for all euro-area Member States, and especially for those countries that have excessive deficits, that are experiencing or are at serious risk of financial instability, or that are under a financial assistance programme.

>> 23/11/2011. Economic governance: Commission proposes two new Regulations to further strengthen budgetary surveillance in the euro area

Commission Green Paper on Stability Bonds

The Commission Green Paper on Stability Bonds, published on 23 November 2011, sets out three main options: the full substitution by Stability Bond issuance of national issuance, with joint and several guarantees; the partial substitution by Stability Bond issuance of national issuance, with joint and several guarantees; and the partial substitution by Stability Bond issuance of national issuance, with several but not joint guarantees. The objective of the Green Paper is to have a broad debate on the issues raised.

>> 23/11/2011. http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/articles/governance/2011-11-23-green-paper-stability-bonds_en.htm”>Green paper on stability bonds

Proposals

Coordination of economic and fiscal policy planning – The European semester

The European SemesterIn the past, the EU institutions discussed economic policies in the spring and examined fiscal policies and developments separately in the autumn. But in 2010, a new approach towards economic surveillance and a new policy-making timetable was agreed. The aim is to ensure that all policies are analysed and assessed together and that policy areas which previously were not systematically covered by economic surveillance – such as macroeconomic imbalance and financial sector issues – are included.

The new approach was put into practice for the first time during the first half of 2011, the first ‘European semester’. EU-level discussions on fiscal policy, macroeconomic imbalances, financial sector issues, and growth-enhancing structural reforms will now always take place jointly during the European semester and before governments draw up their draft budgets and submit them to national parliamentary debate in the second half of the year (the ‘national semester’).

This ‘upstream’ policy coordination should make the implementation of policy guidance more effective and help embed the EU dimension in national policy-making. The annual cycle begins with the Commission’s Annual Growth Survey, which gives broad guidance on priority actions to be taken at EU and national level. Member States then submit Stability or Convergence Programmes on their fiscal plans and National Reform Programmes on structural reforms and measures to boost growth and jobs.

The Commission assesses these reports based on an integrated analysis covering fiscal, macroeconomic, and structural policies and on that basis proposes concrete policy recommendations for each country. The June European Council discusses the recommendations and the Council adopts them.

Documents

2011 Annual Growth Survey (AGS)

Commission 2011 country-specific recommendations

Setting of economic priorities – The Euro+ Pact

To give further impetus to the governance reforms, 23 Member States, including six outside the euro-area (Bulgaria, Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Romania), signed the Euro Plus Pact in March 2011. The Pact commits signatories to even stronger economic coordination for competitiveness and convergence, also in areas of national competence, with concrete goals agreed on and reviewed on a yearly basis by Heads of State or Government. The Euro Plus Pact is integrated into the European semester and the Commission monitors implementation of the commitments.

>> Conclusions of the Heads of State or Government of the euro area of 11 March 2011. A Pact for the euro. Stronger economic policy coordination for competitiveness and convergence.

Europe 2020

The Euro Plus Pact builds on the existing framework of economic priorities agreed at EU level under the Europe 2020 strategy for ‘smart, sustainable and inclusive’ growth. The strategy sets targets in the fields of employment, innovation, climate/energy, education and social inclusion.

>> Europe 2020 – The EU strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth

Repair and safeguard measures – Financial sector repair

Getting Europe back on track also requires a healthy financial sector. The EU, therefore, established a new financial supervision architecture in January 2011. It includes a European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB) for macro-prudential oversight of the financial system, and three European supervisory authorities: the European Banking Authority, the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority, and the European Securities and Markets Authority. Rules have also been tightened on capital requirements for banks, investment firms and insurance companies, and new rules on remuneration and bonuses will reduce incentives for short-term risk-taking. Bank stress tests have been conducted and the Commission will propose a framework to allow banks to fail in an orderly manner, thus ensuring that taxpayers don’t have to pay for bailouts.

>> European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB)
>> European Financial Stability Facility EFSF
>> European Banking Authority (EBA)
>> European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA)
>> European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA)
>> Directorate-General Internal Market. Information on financial services (banking, insurance, securities, etc.

Stability mechanisms

To guarantee the stability of the euro area as a whole and assist individual Member States in financial difficulties and/or under serious market pressure, temporary mechanisms have been set up as a backstop of last resort. A permanent mechanism is scheduled to be in place as of 1 July 2012 subject to pending ratification.

Financial assistance to Greece: Responding to the imminent threat of Greek insolvency, euro-area Member States set up an ad hoc mechanism on 2 May 2010 to provide, together with the IMF, €110bn of financial assistance to Greece in the form of bilateral loans. On 21 July 2011, the Heads of State or Government of the 17 euro-area countries announced a raft of additional measures designed to alleviate the Greek debt crisis and ensure the financial stability of the euro area as a whole. The summit saw agreement on a new financial support programme for Greece worth some €109 billion, a voluntary contribution from the private sector, the extension of maturities, and lowering of lending rates.
>> Financial and economic support package for Greece – detailed information

  • Temporary financial backstop mechanisms: The European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM) is based on guarantees from the Community budget up to €60bn, while the European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) is an inter-governmental body providing up to €440bn in guarantees from the euro area Member States. The IMF decided to complement these mechanisms with a potential financial support to euro area countries of up to €250bn.
    Ireland and Portugal have been granted €85bn and €78bn in assistance respectively from these funding mechanisms. The 21 July 2011 summit statement covered improving the effectiveness of the current European Financial Stability Mechanism (EFSF) and of the future European Stability Mechanism (ESM), adhering to fiscal consolidation and growth in the euro area, and strengthening EU economic governance.
    >> Financial assistance package for Ireland
    >> Financial assistance for Portugal
    >> European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF)
    >> European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM)
  • European Stability Mechanism (ESM): The ESM is scheduled to become operational on 1 July 2012 subject to pending ratification. It will supersede both the EFSF and the EFSM. It will have an effective lending capacity of €500bn.
    >> 11 July 2011. Signing of the Treaty on the European Stability Mechanism

via EU economic governance – European Commission.

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